Pennsylvania’s Raptor Resurgence

The bald eagle is a type of raptor

Pennsylvania is a beautiful state and home to a diverse array of wildlife. Among these natural inhabitants are the raptors – birds of prey that include species such as hawks, eagles, owls, and falcons.

Over the past few decades, Pennsylvania has witnessed a remarkable resurgence in its raptor population. This post will explore their comeback, the reasons behind it, and the role of conservation efforts in their recovery.

Pennsylvania’s Raptor Revival

The story of Pennsylvania’s raptor resurgence is not just about the return of these powerful birds; it is a testament to the power of nature when given a chance to recover.

Although all types of raptors have benefited from the implemented measures, we will focus on the impressive recovery of three specific ones. We will discuss the reasons behind their success, including their struggles and victories and the ongoing efforts to maintain their survival.

What is a Raptor?

Raptors, also known as birds of prey, are a diverse avian species characterized by predatory habits. They are distinguished from other birds by specific physical traits and behaviors that allow them to be efficient hunters in their habitats. These distinguishing features include keen eyesight, powerful beaks, strong talons, and an innate ability for stealth and speed.

The term ‘raptor’ is derived from the Latin word ‘rapere,’ which means to seize or catch up. This terminology aptly describes the hunting strategy of these birds, which involves swooping down on their prey with incredible precision and speed. These birds are carnivorous, feeding primarily on other animals, ranging from insects and small mammals to fish and other birds.

Raptors are classified into several families, each comprising species with unique characteristics. The most common families include Accipitridae (hawks, eagles, kites), Falconidae (falcons, caracaras), Strigidae (owls), and Pandionidae (the Osprey). Each family boasts an array of species, each adapted to their specific environments and possessing unique hunting techniques and survival strategies.

In addition to their ecological importance as apex predators, they hold significant cultural and symbolic value in many societies. They are often associated with strength, courage, and freedom due to their powerful presence and majestic flight.

Understanding the qualities and diversity of raptors is crucial to appreciating their role in the ecosystem and their significance in the resurgence we are witnessing in the state. 

Bald Eagles

Bald eagle perched on tree stump

The Bald Eagle, a symbol of strength and freedom in the United States, has a compelling history in Pennsylvania. This majestic bird, with its distinctive white head and tail feathers set against a dark brown body, is not only the national bird but also the emblem of the country. Once abundant across the state, the Bald Eagle’s numbers dwindled dramatically during the 20th century due to various man-made factors, bringing them to the brink of extinction in the Keystone State.

The decline of the Bald Eagle population was primarily due to habitat destruction, illegal shooting, and the widespread use of harmful pesticides, particularly DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane).

Introduced after World War II, DDT was extensively used in agriculture, which led to a significant decrease in the bird’s reproduction rate. The chemical caused the eagles to lay thin-shelled eggs that were often crushed under the weight of incubating parents.

Recognizing the critical condition of the species, the government and conservation organizations initiated concerted measures to protect and restore the Bald Eagle population.

Efforts included:

  • Banning DDT in 1972.
  • Imposing strict penalties for harming eagles.
  • Implementing a successful reintroduction program in the 1980s and 1990s.

Conservationists raised young eaglets in artificial nests, releasing them into the wild upon maturity.

These strategies have proven effective, leading to a remarkable recovery of the population in the state. From a mere three nests in the late 70s, the state now boasts over 300 nesting pairs. This comeback proves nature’s resiliency when given the right support and protection.

Bald eagle building a large nest in a tree

Keystone Answers Fun Fact: Bald Eagles build a nest about six feet or more across at the top!

There are numerous places across Pennsylvania where one can observe these magnificent birds in their natural habitat. The lower Susquehanna River, the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, and the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River are among the most popular places to spot Bald Eagles, particularly during the winter months when they gather in large numbers.


Osprey catching a fish

The Osprey, scientifically known as Pandion haliaetus, is a captivating bird of prey. With a wingspan reaching up to six feet and a diet primarily consisting of fish, they are often called “fish hawks.” These unique birds have a rich history in the state, filled with challenges and triumphs.

In the late 20th century, the Osprey population in Pennsylvania experienced a sharp decline. Like the Bald Eagle, the decline was primarily due to the widespread use of the pesticide DDT, which led to thinning eggshells and, consequently, low reproductive success.

Habitat destruction and illegal shooting further exacerbated the situation, leading to the Osprey being listed as extirpated in Pennsylvania in 1979 – meaning they were locally extinct.

However, the story of the Osprey in Pennsylvania does not end there. In 1986, steps were initiated to reintroduce this majestic bird into the state—the initial reintroduction attempts involved relocating chicks from thriving populations into Pennsylvania. The success of these initiatives is evident today, as the Osprey has rebounded remarkably from its previous status of local extinction.

Osprey trying to catch a fish

As recently as 1986, Pennsylvania had only one known nesting pair of Ospreys. In 2016 a comprehensive survey confirmed 148 nests across the state, demonstrating an inspiring recovery. Due to preservation efforts they were reclassified as Protected in 2017. These birds can be seen soaring over water bodies, scanning the surface for their next meal, or perched on their towering nests.

For those interested in observing these magnificent birds, there are multiple counties where they are known to nest.

Some areas where Ospreys have been seen are Tioga County, southwestern Pennsylvania, Beaver County, and Butler County, and counties that border the Delaware River. In addition, man-made structures like nesting platforms and cranes along the Monongahela River have also become popular nesting sites for these birds.

Peregrine Falcons

Peregrine falcon perched on a tree limb

Peregrine Falcons, also known as one of the world’s fastest animals with recorded dives of over 200 mph, have a storied history in Pennsylvania. Historically, these majestic birds nested on cliffs across at least 21 counties in the state, showcasing their impressive hunting prowess and adaptability.

However, in the mid-20th century, the Peregrine Falcon population experienced a drastic decline. As with the previously mentioned raptors, the decline was primarily due to the widespread use of DDT, a pesticide that caused eggshell thinning, leading to reduced reproductive success.

And like the Bald Eagle and the Osprey, habitat destruction and illegal shooting played a role in their decline. The native eastern breeding population was virtually wiped out, leaving these magnificent raptors absent from Pennsylvania for nearly three decades.

Recognizing the urgency of the situation, intensive steps were taken to reintroduce Peregrine Falcons. These efforts, which included carefully monitoring and protecting nesting sites, proved successful. From having no Peregrine Falcons in the late 20th century, Pennsylvania is now home to at least 73 pairs, a demonstration of the effectiveness of conservation programs.

In September 2021, the Peregrine Falcon was removed from Pennsylvania’s threatened species list, marking a significant milestone in the bird’s recovery. This achievement is not just a victory for the Peregrine Falcon but also a beacon of hope for other threatened and endangered species.

Today, Peregrine Falcons can be found throughout the state, and they are widespread during migration periods from September to October. Some of the best places to observe these remarkable birds include downtown Pittsburgh, the University of Pittsburgh’s Cathedral of Learning, and the Westinghouse Bridge. These locations offer ample opportunities to witness the speed, agility, and grace of Peregrine Falcons in flight.

Peregrine falcon diving toward its prey

The recovery of these raptors in Pennsylvania is one of hope, demonstrating that we can reverse the damage done to our wildlife populations with dedicated preservation measures.

It serves as an inspiration for ongoing and future initiatives to protect and preserve our natural world. And it underscores the importance of biodiversity and each species’ role in maintaining the health and balance of our ecosystems.

Conservation Efforts

The conservation efforts for raptors in Pennsylvania validate the commitment of various organizations and individuals dedicated to preserving these magnificent birds of prey. These initiatives span a broad range of actions, from habitat preservation to public education and research.

One of the most prominent institutions in this field is the Hawk Mountain Sanctuary. Established in 1934, it serves as an international center for raptor conservation, providing an avenue for education, observation, and research.

View of the valley from the Hawk Mountain overlook

It has also launched specific initiatives, such as the Farmland Raptor Project in 2012, aimed at promoting preservation measures for four raptor species. The project encourages private landowners to report sightings of these species, contributing to a comprehensive database that aids in understanding and protecting these birds.

The Pennsylvania Game Commission also plays a crucial role, covering 11 Pennsylvania diurnal raptors, which include hawks and falcons. Their work involves studying these species, monitoring their populations, and implementing measures to protect them and their habitats.

Additionally, the Shaver’s Creek Environmental Center, home to various raptors, offers opportunities for public interaction and education. By allowing visitors to see these birds up close, they foster a greater appreciation and understanding of raptors, which is crucial for their long-term protection.

Audubon Pennsylvania, another key player, collaborates with paper and pulp manufacturers and forest conservation nonprofits to aid private woodland owners in forest stewardship for at-risk bird species. This demonstrates how preservation endeavors often require cross-sector collaboration, combining the resources and expertise of different stakeholders for a common cause.

Lastly, scientific research is a vital part of conservation. Studies like those conducted by Laurie Goodrich, a wildlife biologist who has been counting birds of prey on Hawk Mountain for over 35 years, provide valuable data on raptor populations and trends. Such research help provide strategies and helps track their effectiveness over time.

The saving of raptors in Pennsylvania involves a multifaceted approach, integrating research, education, habitat protection, and community involvement. These actions have played a significant role in the recovery of raptor populations, contributing to the state’s rich biodiversity.

Winged Wonders

In the vast and diverse natural landscapes of Pennsylvania, the resurgence of raptors is an example of the power of conservation efforts and the enduring adaptability of nature. From the piercing gaze of a Bald Eagle to the swift dives of a Peregrine Falcon, these birds of prey are an integral part of our ecosystem, contributing to its delicate balance and captivating beauty.

As we continue to explore and learn from the world of raptors, let’s remember that each sighting, each flutter of wings, symbolizes nature’s strength and a call to action for us all. The resurgence of Pennsylvania’s raptors is indeed a story of hope and triumph, a narrative that underscores the profound connection between humans and nature and the extraordinary wonders that unfold when we choose to respect and protect it.

Photo of author


Pennsylvania is my home state; I reside on the original homestead settled by my forefathers in the early 1800s. Surrounded by thousands of acres of state land, I enjoy the serenity and quiet of rural Pennsylvania. I like ATVing, observing wildlife, sitting around the campfire, photography, and hiking.